The post-take a look at was given to the identical sample a 7 days after the administration of the pre-exam.
The final results of the two sets of exams were compared by way of Pearson Item Minute Coefficient of Correlation. A correlation coefficient of . This affiliation was uncovered to be important at p < 0.
0. This shows that the questionnaire is moderately stable such that it provides the same results for the same subjects on two or more occasions. The questionnaire aimed to measure the personal space of individuals. The significance of measuring this variable lies in the fact that individuals have different perceptions of personal space depending on the factors that account for it such as culture, gender, etc.
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In terms of content, the questionnaire is valid since it was able to probe various aspects of the joeneil’s Editor Page variable it is supposed to measure. It said to be complete and comprehensive such that it was able to satisfy the research objectives.
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This was determined by a good review of literature to encompass several facets of the topic as studied in previous researches. Moreover, in terms of construct, the questionnaire remains valid as it was able to confirm the current theory which holds that defense of space takes the form of a variety of behaviors like assuming a particular posture, feigning a sleep, staring in an empty space, etc. (Fried and De Fazio, 1974). Since the Joe Neil – Profile – The Forum questionnaire supports this view, it demonstrates a degree of construct validity.
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In addition, while statistical analysis was not employed to determine validity, it seems that there is no significant difference between the results of the present test and those of the established tests measuring the same variable. Nevertheless, while the questionnaire seems to be valid in terms of content and construct, it seems that it lags behind reliability given the moderate correlation obtained from statistical analysis.
But then again, given the obtained values, there is a possibility that the items in the questionnaire are consistent such that they measure the same construct. Also, as far as the analysis of the test-retest results is concerned, it appears that the questionnaire is stable and can be used to repeated occasions. Given that the questionnaire is administered to a small number of people, its predictive validity was not established such that it cannot be assumed that the present questionnaire can predict behavior in the future. In addition, the concurrent validity of the test was also not confirmed since it was not tested with an independent external criterion.
The limited number of items covered by the questionnaire also made it impossible to statistically confirm construct validity through factor analysis. Furthermore, while the statistics confirmed, to some extent, the internal consistency of the questionnaire, it should not be assumed that it is completely reliable as far as homogeneity is concerned. This is because the number of items covered by the questionnaire is too small for statistical analysis. On the other hand, despite the moderate association between the results in the test-retest analysis, it is difficult to say that the questionnaire is indeed stable since the period of time between the two tests is too short and recall bias may have affected the reliability analysis. Perhaps, addition of more items in the questionnaire administered to a larger sample size will strongly establish reliability and validity. Dosey, M. A.
and Meisels, M. (1969). Personal spae and self-protection.